The plumbing system consists of entire system of piping,
fixtures and appliances used for water supply and drainage. The plumbing water
supply system consists of water supply and distribution pipes, taps, valves,
storage tanks etc., while plumbing drainage system consists of wash basins,
water closets, urinals, traps, soil waste pipes, vent pipes, septic tanks etc.
Types of Water Pipes
used in Building
1. PVC Pipes
PVC pipes are used for internal and external water supply
system in buildings.
2. Copper Pipes
Copper pipes of heavy gauge and light gauge are used for
better grade houses and where ground water is highly corrosive to steel pipes.
3. Galvanized Iron
These popes of heavy, medium and light grade are extensively
used for water supply and drainage in building construction as they are
4. Lead Pipes
These pipes are highly corrosion resistant and flexible.
Taps and stop cocks in buildings are available from iron, brass and chromium plated varieties.
External Water Supply
System in Buildings
This system consists of water supply from the source such as
bore well, well or water treatment plant to overhead water tanks and from
overhead water tanks to the houses. For this, the cast iron pipes or G.I. pipes
System in Buildings
There are 5 types of drainage water pipes used in building
- Soil Pipe
- Waste pipe
- Vent pipe
- Rainwater pipe
- Anti-siphonage pipes
1. Soil Pipes and Waste Pipes
These pipes remove sewage and greywater from building and
are connected to the common drainage system. These pipes are generally fitted
to the exterior of the building.
The main use of soil pipe and waste pipe is the removal of waste
from toilets, sinks, showers and baths. These are fitted with vent pipes on the
top for the release of odors.
Traditionally cast-iron soil pipes and waste pipes were
used, but these days uPVC pipes are more common.
2. Vent Pipe
Vent pipes are attached to the top of soil and waste pipe
for the release of bad odors.
3. Rainwater Pipes
These pipes are attached to the roof or open area above building
for the removal or collection of rainwater. The rainwater pipes are drawn to
the ground level in case of removal or these are connected to the rainwater
collection network or tank for rainwater harvesting. These are generally made of
3. Anti-Siphonage Pipes
These are connected to the outlets of toilets which are provided
to maintain water seal to prevent entry of foul gases of the sewer lines into
the toilets and bathrooms. These are made of PVC and their sizes must conform
to the respective standard specifications.
used in Buildings
Following are commonly used sanitary fittings for buildings:
- Hand wash basins
- Sinks (glazed or stainless-steel sinks)
- Bath tubs
- Water closets
- Flushing cisterns
Types of Water
Water closets generally used are:
- Indian type
- European type or pedestal types
- Anglo Indian type
Types of Urinals
- Bowl type or lip type urinals
- Stall type
Types of Flushing Cisterns
- Low level 10 liters capacity
- High level 10 liters capacity
- Automatic flushing type for urinals